NMIS supports using SNMPv3 for securing the collection of sensitive network information. This is especially important from core switches and routers which if compromised could have a considerable business impact. This configuration note does not include details about the SNMPv3 protocol, and assumes that people are wanting to use the authPriv (Authentication and Privilege) mode which is the most secure.
IMPORTANT NOTE ON 256 BIT ENCRYPTION PROTOCOL SUPPORT
Regarding SNMPv3 protocol support, different vendors and even different products support different combinations of authentication and privilege protocols. The above example is for an older Cisco router, newer devices support SHA256 and AES256, the combinations will depend on your device.
Configuring Cisco IOS for SNMPv3
The first step is to enable SNMPv3 on your router or switch. If using Cisco IOS, the commands are below, if using other Cisco operating systems or other vendors, the concepts are the same and the commands will likely be similar. The most important thing is that the device will support SNMPv3, it will require encryption features if you want to use full auth/priv mode.
Required Cisco IOS Configuration for SNMPv3 communication to NMIS
The following three lines of Cisco IOS commands are required to enable SNMPv3 on the Cisco IOS device. When running a show run, the configured user will not show up in the running configuration, the configured users can be viewed by running the command "show snmp user".
The commands above will create a user called nmis8, with an authorisation password of nmis4242 and a privilege password of nmis4242
View the configured SNMP users
Details about Cisco IOS SNMPv3
More details about Cisco IOS SNMPv3 can be found at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_0t/12_0t3/feature/guide/Snmp3.html
Configuring Linux SNMP Daemon (Net-SNMP SNMPD) for SNMPv3
The first step is to enable SNMPv3 on in the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file, then restart the daemon.
Required Linux SNMPD Configuration for SNMPv3 communication to NMIS8
Add the following configuration to the top, edit the /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf file as the root user, e.g.
Add the following configuration replacing the username and passwords is you require.
The commands above will create a user called nmis, with an authorisation password of banana4242 and a privilege password of monkey4242
The view of 18.104.22.168, will permit access to the Standard MIB and the Enterprise MIB, essentially providing full access.
Restart the SNMP Daemon
Testing your SNMPv3 Configuration with NET-SNMP
To verify that SNMPv3 is working as configured run the following command. Change the username and passwords if you have used different ones.
Configuring NMIS9 for SNMPv3
To use SNMP version 3 NMIS requires two perl modules that are not normally or automatically installed,
From version 8.5.14 onwards the installer will try to install these modules; until then you'll have to resolve this dependency by hand:
- on Debian or Ubuntu use:
sudo apt-get install libcrypt-des-perl libdigest-hmac-perl
- on RedHat/CentOS use:
sudo yum install perl-Digest-HMAC perl-Crypt-DES
- or, if neither option appeals you may also use CPAN:
sudo cpan Crypt::DES Digest::HMAC.
Change Nodes.nmis Configuration
You can edit a Node using the NMIS GUI to include support for SNMPv3, as described in Adding and Editing a Device in NMIS8 (same works in NMIS9).
For NMIS 9 it can be done using the GUI or the node admin tool.
You will need to modify the node configuration to use SNMPv3, the user name, protocols and passwords need to match the above IOS or Linux configuration.
Test NMIS SNMPv3 communication to the device
Ensure NMIS has the necessary encryption modules installed, it may be missing Crypt::DES, you will only need to do this if you see an error message below
Run a test NMIS collect to the device using SNMPv3
For nmis9, it can be done:
In nmis9, the credentials can be also tested with an admin tool:
An example output:
In the command output you are looking to verify that data was collected from the device, so any updates to an RRD will show that data was collected and is being stored.
You should now be using SNMPv3 to communicate with this device from NMIS8.
Updating NMIS9 to support SHA256 and AES256 including Cisco variants
The history of encryption in SNMPv3 is long and winding and possibly interesting to some people, the reality is that the only consistency with SNMPv3 implementations is the inconsistency in the implementations by different vendors and projects. Frequently combinations of protocols are not supported (or do not work), so you need to find the matching combinations.
Once you have updated the SNMP libraries NMIS uses for SNMP, you should be able to use the following protocols for SNMPv3.
|sha (or sha1)|
|aes (or aes128)||usmAESCfb128PrivProtocol||22.214.171.124.4.1.14832.2||Blumenthal implementation of SNMPv3|
|aes192||usmAESCfb192PrivProtocol||126.96.36.199.4.1.14832.3||Blumenthal implementation of SNMPv3|
|aes256||usmAESCfb256PrivProtocol||188.8.131.52.4.1.14832.4||Blumenthal implementation of SNMPv3|
|Cisco implementation of SNMPv3 AES192|
|aes256c||cusmAESCfb256PrivProtocol||184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.6.1.2||Cisco implementation of SNMPv3 AES256|
|18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.6.1.101||A mysterious version 2 of the Cisco implementation, possibly related to pysnmp|
|aes256c2||usmAES256Cisco2PrivProtocol||126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.6.1.102||A mysterious version 2 of the Cisco implementation, possibly related to pysnmp|
Update or Install Perl Modules
Crypt::Rijndael module needs to be installed for AES support. This is the command to install Crypt::Rijndael if this module is not already installed and will ensure we have the latest version:
Net::SNMP module needs to be up to date - currently v6.0.1 - this command will ensure we have the latest version:
Patch Net::SNMP::Security::USM to support 256 bit and higher encryption
The NMIS development team have added support to the Net::SNMP library using the work done recently by the team and leveraging the work done by Napsty @ https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Napsty/scripts/master/perl-net-snmp-sha2/USM.pm
If you are using NMIS 9.4.3 or earlier you will need to obtain the contrib folder from GitHub @ https://github.com/Opmantek/nmis9/tree/nmis9_dev/contrib/perl-net-snmp-256
We will use a patched Net::SNMP::Security::USM, for Net::SNMP v6.0.1, which is backwards compatible with all snmp protocol strings used in the original Net::SNMP::Security::USM module.
All protocol strings are case-insensitive.
Copy the shipped USM.pm from the contrib folder and replace the Net::SNMP v6.0.1 version.
On RedHat 8 based systems (including our CentOS Virtual Machine)
On Debian/Ubuntu based systems
Find where USM.pm is installed
Older Linux versions will have the Perl module somewhere else, the fastest way to find it is to use find.
Restart the NMIS9 Daemon
Update NMIS GUI to show new options
Testing SNMPv3 quickly
The contrib folder includes a lightweight SNMP testing tool, which differs from the nmis9/admin/tests.pl tool, in that it does not use net-snmp Linux package at all, it purely exercises the NMIS SNMP libraries.
To quickly change NMIS configuration to use a different combination, update the device and commit/apply changes.
Update NMIS node details:
Repeat your SNMP test
More on Vendor Support for SHA and AES 256
In testing the NMIS development team found that the implementation of SNMP options was not consistent.
For example on a Fortigate device, the administration GUI allowed setting SHA256 and AES256 but these would not work together. When SHA256 and AES256 Cisco were used, the system was very happy.
Many Cisco devices will support SHA256 but only AES128 (which given the entropy is reasonable "AES-128 would take about 2.61*10^12 years to crack" https://www.ubiqsecurity.com/128bit-or-256bit-encryption-which-to-use/).
At the time of writing (March 2023) net-snmp on Linux does not include support for AES256 by default (including SNAP repositories). net-snmp does support AES256, you just need to compile if yourself.
SNMPv3 Error Messages and How to Decode Them
No response from remote host during synchronization
The test-snmp.pl tool would show this:
This means you have the wrong authentication protocol or password, you will need to change them and try again
No response from remote host
The test-snmp.pl tool would show this:
This means you have the wrong privilege protocol or password, you will need to change them and try again
The authProtocol is unknown during discovery
The test-snmp.pl tool would show this:
This means the remote SNMP agent in the end device (node) does not know what this authentication protocol is.
Confirmed working combinations
The below is a list of confirmed working SNMPv3 combinations across a variety of different vendor and operating systems.
This is by no means a comprehensive list of the products we support.
|Vendor / Operating System||SHA||AES||NMIS Considerations|
|Cisco IOS||SHA1||AES256||aes256c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA1||AES192||aes192c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA224||AES256 Cisco||sha224 needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.authprotocol value in NMIS AND aes256c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA256||AES256 Cisco||sha256 needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.authprotocol value in NMIS AND aes256c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA384||AES256 Cisco||sha384 needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.authprotocol value in NMIS AND aes256c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA512||AES256 Cisco||sha512 needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.authprotocol value in NMIS AND aes256c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA224||AES192||aes192c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA256||AES192||aes192c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA256||AES256||aes256c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA384||AES192||aes192c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
|SHA384||AES256||aes256c needs to be configured as the entry.configuration.privprotocol value in NMIS|
You may notice that when configuring SNMPv3 on a (for example) Cisco IOS device that there is not an explicit AES192C/AES256C in the command, rather it is needed to be defined as AES 192 and/or AES 256.
When configuring the device for NMIS, you will need to explicitly tell it to use AES192C/AES256C using node_admin.pl (example covered previously).